AI is a technology that is expected to play an active role in various fields, and the entertainment field is no exception.
Video games have long been one of the forms of entertainment in which new technologies have been actively adopted, but AI has a long history in games, and there are many examples of its introduction.
This time, we will introduce the history of AI in such video games, and how to use and design it.
Table of Contents
- The history of artificial intelligence (AI) programming in games
- The world of video games with a long history of artificial intelligence (AI)
- Artificial intelligence (AI) that learns player skills in real-time
- Game Artificial Intelligence (AI) Design Process
- How Artificial Intelligence (AI) Programming Works
- The difficulty of AI implementation
- 7 programming textbooks useful for game artificial intelligence (AI) design
- How to make artificial intelligence – How does “interesting” game AI work (Gijutsu Hyoronsha)
- Introduction to AI for Game Developers (O’Reilly Japan)
- Game AI programming learned by example (O’Reilly Japan)
- Techniques to remember before becoming a game programmer (Shuwa System)
- Game AI and Deep Learning: Neuroevolution and Humanity (Ohmsha)
- Introduction to Game Informatics – Artificial Intelligence to Open Up Games (Corona Publishing)
- Artificial Intelligence in FINAL FANTASY XV – Future Seen from Game AI (Square Enix)
- At the end
The history of artificial intelligence (AI) programming in games
Originally, video games were born by developing computer programs, and some programs could be said to be the prototype of AI from the very early stage when video games became popular.
The world of video games with a long history of artificial intelligence (AI)
Practical projects crossing over AI and video games have already been identified since the 1940s.
One of the most popular historical examples is “Space Invaders” (1978).
Needless to say, Space Invaders is the gold standard of arcade games and is a worldwide hit created by the Japanese amusement company Taito.
Rather than simply hitting the target, the player will engage in a firefight with a computer-controlled enemy character with the theme of confrontation with AI, and a life-or-death battle was expressed in the dotted world.
Also, at the time, it was the first game to use a CPU, and the appearance of enemy characters that accurately calculated and shot at the player was the reason why it was described as a game with a relatively high degree of difficulty. It also became
However, this sense of urgency caused a stir, and it sublimated into a very popular work, especially among the younger generation.
This is not the only case where AI is installed in games to predict the next action based on the player’s movements. will be introduced in the future.
Artificial intelligence (AI) that learns player skills in real-time
The most active use of AI in video games is in how the difficulty level changes in real-time according to the player’s skill.
Game difficulty design is one of the most important aspects of production.
Because the skill of the game varies from person to person, if it is too easy, it will get boring in an instant as “it is not crunchy”, and if it is too difficult, it will be described as “losing the player’s motivation”.
Efforts to solve this problem by introducing AI have also been actively carried out in overseas video games.
AI-based difficulty design is often taken up as a typical example, for example, “Left 4 Dead”.
Left 4 Dead is an action shooter where you aim for your destination while repelling zombies approaching you. The degree is changed little by little.
If the player’s skill seems to be high, zombies will be actively thrown in, and the difficulty level will change to the point where the battle state is constantly occurring. will decrease and the level will fluctuate so that you can reach your destination somehow.
With these automatic difficulty settings, the game is controlled in real-time by AI so that players of all skill levels can enjoy the game fairly.
Game Artificial Intelligence (AI) Design Process
Next, let’s take a look at how much AI is being introduced into video games.
How Artificial Intelligence (AI) Programming Works
When introducing AI into video games, keep in mind that there are several types of AI.
For example, an AI that enables a CPU character to act autonomously is called a “character AI”.
Unlike pre-arranged objects such as floors and walls, it has the flexibility to adjust its behavior according to the player’s behavior.
And the second is “Navigation AI”.
This is an AI that conveys the current information of the game to each AI and the player in real-time, and it is also this AI that objectively judges which course the player should take and whether the CPU or the player is in an advantageous situation.
Meta AI, which does not have a physical body, manages the environment and difficulty according to the game situation.
It is this AI that automatically sets the difficulty level as described above and generates maps.
The difficulty of AI implementation
Broadly speaking, video game AI can be divided into the above three categories, but there is no doubt that the difficulty level of introduction increases as you go from top to bottom.
The character AI only needs to perform the optimal action according to how the player moves, so if you can understand the pattern, the program is not that difficult.
Navigation AI also limits the behavior patterns of players and characters to some extent from the beginning, so there are few cases where automating course determination is complicated.
On the other hand, AI that automatically adjusts the difficulty level is difficult to introduce because it is necessary to measure the score and behavior patterns of the players in real-time and output them.
You have to do a lot of complicated calculations, but it makes the game very exciting.
7 programming textbooks useful for game artificial intelligence (AI) design
Finally, I would like to introduce some textbooks that can be used for designing game AI.
How to make artificial intelligence – How does “interesting” game AI work (Gijutsu Hyoronsha)
A best-seller by Yoichiro Miyake, a leading figure in in-game AI.
It is the perfect book for those who want to acquire knowledge because you can learn in detail the history and mechanisms of AI from the 1980s to the present with examples.
Introduction to AI for Game Developers (O’Reilly Japan)
This is an introductory book on game AI published in 2005.
Programmers should read this book because they can learn the knowledge and skills necessary to introduce AI to make games more interesting in the second half.
Game AI programming learned by example (O’Reilly Japan)
The content is similar to the above material, but this one focuses on the approach of learning the mechanism of AI from actual examples.
Not only the technique but also the lecture format with a sense of familiarity that “that game was like this!”, So you can read it crisply.
Techniques to remember before becoming a game programmer (Shuwa System)
This is a teaching material that people who are active as programmers at Sega give lectures.
It is based on the curriculum for newcomers that the author handled, so it will help you acquire practical skills.
Game AI and Deep Learning: Neuroevolution and Humanity (Ohmsha)
This is also a teaching material for acquiring practical skills while introducing AI in the game with actual examples.
It is a book that touches on the latest artificial intelligence topics and can be used to expand knowledge of AI in general.
Introduction to Game Informatics – Artificial Intelligence to Open Up Games (Corona Publishing)
This is a teaching material that allows you to learn the basics of information processing technology that supports game AI from the perspective of game informatics.
Due to its density, it is the best book for those who want to learn AI firmly through games.
Artificial Intelligence in FINAL FANTASY XV – Future Seen from Game AI (Square Enix)
The latest AI is installed, and it is an AI commentary of FF15 that became a hot topic not only for game Kurita but also for AI researchers.
It is a book that allows you to thoroughly learn what happens when you create a game using modern advanced technology.
At the end
Games have always been rich in technology, but AI has a history of being utilized at a high level, such as the theory of its operation.
While AI technology is gaining attention, the world of video games, where AI research has been conducted since the early days, is also attracting attention.
A variety of teaching materials have been published to meet the needs of people, so I think that video games have become an easy topic for people who want to learn AI for the first time.